African kingdoms: conquest and survival

In the 1870s settler and colonial determination to bring blacks more firmly under political control undermined the hard-won security that many African societies had achieved. This was due to changed economic conditions in South Africa’s hinterland and the consequent need to secure sufficient political authority over Africans, to ensure security and access to labour. This section examines this process and the attempt by these societies to resist the extension of colonial control over them.

The destruction of the Zulu kingdom 1879 – 1896

The destruction of the Pedi Kingdom

The Sotho

The Swazi

The Hlubi under Langalibalele

The Tlhaping and Rolong

The end of Griqua independence

The Venda

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